Processes of structural change have frequently been accompanied by severe dislocation caused in great part by resistance of established elites, flight of skilled technicians, economic blockade, and military intervention of threatened hegemonic powers. These actions have created enormous problems for countries attempting to restructure their social order in order to embark upon relatively autonomous patterns of development. One need not search deeply in history for illustrations of deliberate efforts on the part of metropolitan countries to sabotage the development of newly independent states: one is reminded of V.S. efforts to cut Cuba's oil supply and the French attempt to dismantle the Guinean economy.
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