The collapse by century's end of most of the post-revolutionary social experiments of the twentieth century put socialists nearly everywhere on the defensive. Today's call for a "socialism for the twenty-first century" is an attempt to transcend this defensive posture and to engage fully with the most urgent problem of our time: the creation of a sustainable socialist order. In this respect, "István Mészáros," in the words of President Hugo Chávez of Venezuela, "is someone who lights up the road. He points to the core of the argument we must make in order to go beyond the defensive attitude in which the world's peoples and revolutionary movements find themselves, and to take the offensive, throughout the world, in moving toward socialism" (quoted from back cover of Mészáros, O desafio e o fardo do tempo histórico [Sáo Paulo: Boitempo Editorial, 2007]; English edition, The Challenge and Burden of Historical Time [forthcoming from Monthly Review Press, 2008]).
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